Mammary cancer

Infographic: Breast Cancer in Indonesia


Moscow Mayor opened a new building of the family health center at the maternity hospital

In Moscow, women are invited to a free breast examination

Healthy Moscow Pavilions to complete their work on October 6

The most common cancer in women is Rak mammary gland. Doctors recommend regular breast diagnostics in the clinic, as well as independently monitor any changes in the chest and, if they are detected, immediately contact a specialist. The Moscow Department of Health told which external signs may indicate breast cancer.

“Standing in front of a mirror in bright light, a woman should carefully examine the mammary glands from the front and side, first with her arms down, then with her arms raised. During self-examination, pay attention to the areas of the nipple, areola, gland tissue, axillary and supraclavicular areas. Evaluate whether there is a change in the size or shape of one of the mammary glands, retraction, changes in position or shape of the nipple, ” Guram Kvetenadze, Head of the Department of Surgery and Reconstruction of the Breast Gland Loginova DZM.

Then it is worth probing the mammary glands, armpits and supraclavicular areas for the presence of swelling or thickening of the tissues. Pits or folds, especially around the nipple, may indicate the presence of benign or malignant neoplasms.

The doctor also recommends that you beware if discharge from one or both nipples.

“Discharges are spontaneous, which can be noticed by the marks left on the clothes, and obtained by palpation, if you squeeze the nipple at its base with the thumb and forefinger. Transparent, “amber” and spotting is a deviation, ”warns Guram Kvetenadze.

The specialist also said that women over 18 should conduct a self-examination of the mammary glands. monthly 5-14 days from the start of the menstrual cycle, and for women in menopause - on any day of the month.

If there are changes in the breast, a mandatory visit to a doctor is required. Detection of breast cancer at an early stage gives a chance for a full recovery in 98% of cases.

From October 12 to November 3 in 79 medical organizations in accordance with the schedule, Muscovites can undergo free breast diagnostics, get expert advice and listen to thematic lectures

71 medical organizations invites women from 18 to 39 years old for an ultrasound examination, and women over 40 for a mammogram. Doctors will take from October 19 to November 3 on Saturdays from 9:00 to 18:00 and on Sundays from 9:00 to 15:00. First you need to sign up by contacting the institution.

Women can also attend open diagnostic days at oncology hospitals and lectures at the Women's Health School. A full list of activities and additional information can be found on the website.

Events are held as part of World Breast Cancer Day.

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What causes cancer?

Cancer occurs as a result of the conversion of normal cells to tumor cells during a multi-stage process, during which a precancerous lesion passes into a malignant tumor. These changes occur as a result of the interaction between human genetic factors and three categories of external factors, including:

  • physical carcinogens, such as ultraviolet and ionizing radiation,
  • chemical carcinogens such as asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, aflatoxins (food contaminants) and arsenic (drinking water pollutant),
  • biological carcinogens, such as infections caused by certain viruses, bacteria or parasites.

WHO, through its International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), classifies carcinogenic factors.

Another fundamental factor in the development of cancer is aging. With age, the incidence of cancer increases dramatically, most likely due to the accumulation of risk factors for the development of certain cancers. The general accumulation of risks is exacerbated by the tendency to decrease the efficiency of cell renewal mechanisms as a person ages.

Cancer Risk Factors

The main risk factors for cancer in the world are tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity, they are the four main common risk factors for other noncommunicable diseases.

Some chronic infections are risk factors for cancer, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Carcinogenic infections, including Helicobacter pylori, human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and Epstein-Barr virus, were identified as the cause of approximately 15% of cancer cases diagnosed in 2012 (3).

Hepatitis B and C virus and some types of HPV increase the risk of liver and cervical cancer, respectively. HIV infection significantly increases the risk of developing cancer, such as cervical cancer.

How can the cancer burden be reduced?

At present, 30–50% of cancers can be prevented if risk factors are avoided and appropriate prevention strategies are implemented based on evidence. In addition, the cancer burden can be reduced by early detection of cancer and management of patients who develop cancer. With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, there is a high probability of curing many types of cancer.

Change and prevention of risk factors

Cancer burden reduction can be achieved by modifying or preventing underlying risk factors. These risk factors include the following:

  • tobacco use, including cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use
  • overweight or obesity,
  • unhealthy diet with low consumption of fruits and vegetables,
  • lack of physical activity
  • alcohol consumption,
  • HPV infection that occurs through sexual contact
  • infection with hepatitis or other carcinogenic infections,
  • ionizing and ultraviolet radiation,
  • urban air pollution,
  • smokiness of premises as a result of using solid fuels in homes.

Tobacco use is the single largest cancer risk factor, accounting for nearly 22% of global cancer deaths (2).

Prevention strategies

To prevent cancer, you can do the following:

  • more actively avoid the risk factors listed above,
  • to vaccinate against infections caused by HPV and hepatitis B virus,
  • to deal with sources of danger in the workplace,
  • reduce exposure to ultraviolet radiation,
  • reduce the effect of ionizing radiation (at the workplace or during medical diagnostic imaging).

Vaccination against infections caused by HPV and hepatitis B virus can prevent up to 1 million cases of cancer annually (3).

Early diagnosis

With early detection of cancer, the probability of positive results with effective treatment is high, the likelihood of survival is increased, the incidence and cost of treatment are reduced. Early detection of cancer and the absence of delays in care can help achieve significant improvements in patients' lives.

Early diagnosis consists of three stages, which should be carried out in a complex and timely manner:

  • advocacy and access to health care,
  • clinical assessment, diagnosis and stage determination,
  • access to treatment.

Early diagnosis is relevant in all circumstances and is important in most types of cancer. In the absence of early diagnosis, the disease is diagnosed in the later stages, when radical treatment often can no longer help. It is possible to develop programs aimed at reducing delays and barriers to health care and allowing patients to receive treatment in a timely manner.

The goals of screening are to identify people with disorders that suggest certain cancers or precancer and to quickly refer those people for diagnosis and treatment.

The effectiveness of screening programs in detecting certain types of cancer is ensured by the use of appropriate tests, their effective application, linking with other stages of the screening process and quality control. As a rule, a screening program is a much more complex health intervention than early diagnosis.

Examples of screening methods:

  • Acetic Acid Visual Inspection (VIA) to detect cervical cancer in low-income countries
  • HPV testing to detect cervical cancer,
  • PAP test - a cytological study for cervical cancer in middle and high income countries, and
  • mammography for the detection of breast cancer in countries with highly developed or relatively highly developed health systems.

A correctly diagnosed diagnosis is important in order to prescribe an appropriate and effective treatment, since each type of cancer requires a special treatment regimen covering one or more methods, such as surgery, radiation therapy and / or chemotherapy. An important first step is the definition of treatment goals and palliative care; health services should be comprehensive and people-centered. The main goal is to cure cancer or significantly prolong life. Another important goal is to improve the quality of life of the patient. This can be achieved through supportive care or palliative care and psychological support.

Palliative care

Palliative care is a treatment aimed primarily at alleviating cancer-induced symptoms, rather than cure, and improving the quality of life of patients and their families. Palliative care can help people live more comfortably. This is an urgent humanitarian need for all people in the world suffering from cancer and other chronic fatal diseases, especially necessary in places with a high proportion of patients with advanced stages of the disease and with a low probability of cure.

Palliative care can alleviate physical, psychosocial, and spiritual problems in more than 90% of patients with advanced cancer.

Palliative Care Strategies

Effective health strategies, including community and home care, are needed to relieve pain and provide palliative care for patients and their families with limited resources.

Improved access to oral morphine is needed to treat moderate to severe pain, which affects more than 80% of cancer patients in the terminal stage of the disease.

WHO activities

In 2017, the World Health Assembly adopted the resolution “Cancer Prevention and Control in the Context of an Integrated Approach” (WHA70.12), which called on governments and WHO to accelerate action to achieve the goals of the Global Plan of Action and the Agenda UN Day for Sustainable Development for the period until 2030, to reduce levels of premature cancer mortality.

WHO and IARC collaborate with other organizations of the United Nations system within the framework of the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and with partners to achieve the following goals:

  • to strengthen commitment to political commitments in the field of cancer prevention and control,
  • coordinate and conduct research on the causes of human cancer and oncogenesis mechanisms,
  • monitor cancer burden (as part of the Global Cancer Registration Initiative),
  • identify the most beneficial and other cost-effective priority cancer prevention and control strategies,
  • develop standards and tools for managing planning and implementation of activities in the field of prevention, early diagnosis, screening, treatment, as well as palliative care and assistance to people after treatment, including in case of cancer in childhood,
  • strengthen health systems at the national and local levels for the provision of drugs and medical care for cancer patients, including improving access to cancer treatment,
  • set an agenda for cancer prevention and control through the Global Cancer Report,
  • provide global leadership as well as technical assistance to support governments and their partners in developing and sustaining high-quality cervical cancer control programs as part of the United Nations Global Cervical Cancer Prevention Program, and
  • Provide technical assistance to quickly and efficiently communicate to countries information on best practices.

(2) Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2013.

GBD 2015 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet. 2016 Oct, 388 (10053): 1659-1724.

(3) Plummer M, de Martel C, Vignat J, Ferlay J, Bray F, Franceschi S. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2012: a synthetic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2016 Sep, 4 (9): e609-16. doi: 10.1016 / S2214-109X (16) 30143-7.