Heavy menstruation is the norm for some women. Severe bleeding is considered a feature of physiology, the device of the genitals and blood vessels. But most often they occur in pathologies due to metabolic disorders or hormonal levels. Even if there is no pain, and the cycle is regular, it is advisable to see a doctor to understand how serious the deviation is, how to make blood loss during menstruation less noticeable.
- What should be the normal volume of menstrual flow
- How to measure blood loss
- Factors that can increase menstrual flow
- Causes of abnormal abnormal periods
- Hormonal disbalance
- Pregnancy pathology
Oats contain magnesium, which supports the nervous system during menstruation. It will help you fall asleep, reduce anxiety and smooth out mood swings. Oat is also one of the best sources of zinc, which helps women suffering from painful periods. It also provides the body with the necessary carbohydrates during this period. Everyone knows how nutritious the oatmeal is and how easy it is to digest, so that it will be an excellent helper on critical days.
Women lose from 30 to 80 ml of blood during menstruation, which corresponds to 15-25 mg of iron, so it is important to make up for the lack of iron with products that contain it in large quantities.
This herb contains apiol - a compound that can stimulate the entire process, while facilitating menstrual cramps (dull aching pains in the lower abdomen).
It also alleviates pain in the lower abdomen, as contains many nutrients such as vitamin E, vitamin B6 and magnesium.
To reduce cramping and fatigue during menstruation, you need to eat legumes. They have a lot of vitamin B and coarse fiber, which normalizes digestion. However, do not overdo it so as not to cause bloating.
The female body needs approximately 1200 mg of calcium during menstruation. (This is twice the usual daily rate). Calcium deficiency exacerbates the manifestation of unpleasant PMS symptoms.
This vegetable helps fight bloating, swelling and excessive fatigue. Broccoli contains calcium, vitamins A, C, B6 and E, potassium and magnesium, which relieve the symptoms of PMS.
Bananas can also help with digestion, which is important for women with diarrhea during a critical period. It is also known that bananas help with cramps due to vitamin B6, but the main thing is that bananas contain a lot of potassium, which helps to remove excess fluid from the body, and therefore relieves swelling and bloating. Well, again, everyone knows that bananas perfectly cheer up.
Pineapples also help fight spasms because they contain bromelain, a plant-based enzyme that helps relax muscles. True, most of the bromelain is located in the stalks of pineapple, which is not very tasty but, nevertheless, edible.
During menstruation, they need to eat as much as possible. Apples saturate the body with essential magnesium and iron during menstruation.
They contain omega-3 fatty acids, which are known to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. In addition, walnuts are rich in magnesium and vitamin B6. There are studies proving that menstruation in women who use omega-3 fatty acids is less painful.
Sunflower seeds are rich in vitamin E, as well as zinc and magnesium. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) is also found in sunflower seeds, which helps to relieve pain during menstruation, and also helps the absorption of zinc and magnesium.
Chamomile tea helps reduce muscle cramps, relieve tension, reduce anxiety and irritability. It is considered a natural anti-inflammatory agent that relieves pain in the lower abdomen. In addition, warm drinks during this period are especially indicated.
Heavy bleeding during menstruation: reasons to stop
Bleeding with menstruation - for what reason does it occur, do I need to see a doctor and how can I reduce blood loss on my own? These are all very important and frequently asked questions. Indeed, many women suffer from heavy menstruation, both young and menopausal women approaching age. Let's start with the theory.
Norm and pathology
Normally, a woman during menstruation loses no more than 50 grams of blood for all days of menstruation. Usually in the first 2-3 days the bleeding is stronger, there may be slight pain in the uterus, caused by its contraction. 40-50 grams is a moderate discharge. Less than 40 grams are lean.
With a loss of blood from 50 to 80 grams, they talk about the possible occurrence of iron deficiency, especially if a woman does not eat well, does not eat enough iron-containing foods. Another sign of iron deficiency is excessive hair loss throughout the head.
With blood loss of 80 to 120 grams, they speak of the need to reduce it with the help of hemostatic or hormonal drugs. And be sure to check for iron deficiency.
Do not forget to tell your doctor if you have severe bleeding during menstruation with clots, especially if they are large - more than 2 cm. This may indicate a lot of blood loss. If this has not been previously observed, there is a chance of a miscarriage, that is, a woman may be pregnant, and termination of pregnancy should be considered as one of the possible causes of bleeding. Usually a miscarriage is accompanied by pain in the uterus, cramping, sometimes fever, nausea, weakness.
Urgent medical care, or at least a consultation, is needed if very heavy bleeding occurs during menstruation, for 2 or less hours one sanitary pad (not daily) gets completely wet. Just with copious discharge, you can wait for their completion and go to the gynecologist for an examination to discuss this situation.
But, by the way, such emergency situations arise infrequently. The issue of uterine bleeding or menstruation usually occurs in women around the middle of the cycle. And then the doctors, regardless of the abundance of secretions, say that this is precisely bleeding, the so-called dysfunctional. There is a minimum norm for the duration of the cycle - it is 21 days. If blood appeared, say, on the 18th day, then you must remember how to distinguish menstruation from bleeding, and that in this case you can and should consult a doctor.
How to measure blood loss
A convenient way to determine blood loss and its compliance with the norm is to count the number of absorbent sanitary pads that a woman has to use every day during menstruation. Summarizing the number of pads used per day, you can find out how much blood is lost for all days:
- Blood loss is considered "very light" if the pads need to be changed 1-2 times a day (this corresponds to 6-9 g of secretions containing blood and mucus).
- With "light discharge" it is necessary to use 3-4 pads per day (change every 6-8 hours, which corresponds to about 10-12 g).
- With "moderate" blood loss, replacement pads are required once every 4 hours (13-15 g / day is released).
- “Abundant” are considered discharge, in which the pads must be changed every 3 hours (up to 18 g of blood per day is lost).
A "very large" blood loss is when the gasket flows every 1-2 hours. In this case, medical assistance is already required, since there is a clear pathology.
How to understand how much blood you lose and what to do
The easiest way is to weigh a clean sanitary pad on small scales that accurately show the grams, and then used. The difference between the two values will be the volume of blood lost. Record this difference each time and summarize.
With a loss of blood in the amount of more than 50-60 grams, you can think about taking oral contraceptives (hormonal tablets). If endometriosis is the cause of heavy discharge, and if a woman is not planning a pregnancy at the moment, this is a great way to make your blood loss moderate or even meager. But you should only remember that you should not start taking contraceptives on your own, especially for the first time. Perhaps you have contraindications to their reception that you do not take into account. So, hormonal contraceptives should not be taken by smoking women, especially over 35 years old, with severe hypertension, liver and kidney failure, a history of thrombosis, etc.
If oral contraceptives for some reason are not suitable - you can try to take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They have analgesic and antipyretic properties (the well-known "Ibuprofen"). But besides this, he has the ability to somewhat reduce blood loss. One problem - it can not be with a sick stomach.
How to stop bleeding during menstruation most quickly, efficiently and safely? Many doctors recommend Ditsinon in the old manner, but Tranexam is a more modern and effective means. You need to take according to the instructions. But drinking nettle is completely ineffective. It makes sense only if there is absolutely no way out. For example, when you are out of town and there are no pharmacies nearby.
But sometimes it’s more correct not to try to find the most effective and suitable pills to stop bleeding during menstruation, but to eliminate the cause of this pathology. It can be an endometrial polyp. It is removed during the curettage procedure, and preferably hysteroscopy, so the doctor will not be mistaken. By the way, the polyp causes bleeding after menstruation, intermenstrual. It is necessary to get rid of it.
Another common cause is uterine fibroids, especially submucous and / or large subserous, intramural. The myomatous node does not allow the uterus to contract well. Therefore, menstruation can be not only plentiful, but also long. Submucous fibroids are usually removed at any size; for this, a peritoneal incision is not necessary. Myoma is removed by hysteroscopy, through the vagina. Intramuscular myomatous nodes and subserous (growing on the uterus as “mushrooms”) up to 7 cm in size can be removed laparoscopically. And more than 7-8 cm laparotomically. But it is worth noting that there is a conservative hormonal treatment of uterine fibroids. True, it helps for a while. But it serves as a good preoperative preparation. The nodes after treatment are reduced in size by about half.
And, of course, we must not forget about the embolization of the uterine arteries (EMA). This is the procedure of "killing" myomas without an incision. The doctor introduces emboli into the artery that feeds the myoma, under the control of an X-ray, - particles that should block the nutrition for the fibroids. After that, she is necrotic. Already there are successful results of the procedure in women planning a pregnancy. But now EMA is not considered the best choice for them, as it can potentially harm the uterus and ovaries. But for women who are not planning a pregnancy, over the age of 35 years and multiple uterine fibroids, this is a great way to get rid of problems, including with heavy menstruation.
And finally, the problem of heavy menstrual flow may be due to iron deficiency. Yes, oddly enough, and iron deficiency is provoked by large blood loss, and blood loss can be a consequence of iron deficiency. But only in order to get the correct result (iron deficiency may be hidden), you need to donate blood not to hemoglobin, but to ferritin. If this diagnosis is confirmed, when taking iron-containing drugs, and menstruation become less plentiful.
By the way, a consultation with a hematologist and an endocrinologist, in general, will not do much harm if the gynecologist has not found the cause of hypermenorrhea (heavy menstruation). After all, the problem may be in their part.
Remember that hypermenorrhea is not the norm. You can and should get rid of it. This will be good for health, and the quality of life will increase.
Factors that can increase menstrual flow
The amount and consistency of discharge is individual for each woman. They depend on hereditary and congenital features of the structure of the uterus, blood coagulation, metabolism, temperament, lifestyle, nutrition system, physique, age. The following factors can affect the nature of the discharge:
- The use of hormonal contraceptives. They are taken to suppress egg maturation and ovulation according to a strictly defined pattern. Violation of the regimen leads to the appearance of stronger than usual menstruation.
- Installation of an intrauterine device. In the first 3 months, menstruation can be longer and more plentiful, until the body gets used to the new hormonal background.
- The use of duphaston and other therapeutic hormonal drugs. Discontinuation of their intake leads to a sharp increase in progesterone levels and the beginning of abundant blood excretion in a few days.
- Taking anticoagulants and other drugs that can reduce blood clotting.
The intensity increases if during their course the body is subjected to increased physical exertion, if a woman experiences emotional stress.
Menstrual bleeding intensifies after an abortion or surgery on the uterus, as well as after childbirth. This is to blame not only for a change in the hormonal background, but also a violation of the state of the inner surface, which stimulates a more intensive development of the endometrium. The appearance of adhesions or scars in the uterine cavity leads to the appearance of clots of clotted blood in the menstrual flow, resulting from its stagnation.
In adolescents, within 2 years after the onset of puberty, as well as in women during the onset of the first menopausal changes as a result of hormonal instability, heavy bleeding alternates during menses with scarce. Menstruation comes with delays or, conversely, too often.
An increased estrogen content leads to excessive growth of the endometrium and increased bleeding intensity during menstruation. The cause of hyperestrogenia is a violation of the production of pituitary hormones, the thyroid gland and other endocrine organs, the use of contraceptives and hormonal drugs, metabolic disorders and other factors.
Sometimes during pregnancy, due to a lack of progesterone, menstruation does not disappear. If your period comes with a slight delay, and after that the bleeding is profuse and painful, this may mean that a miscarriage occurred at an early date.
Menstrual bleeding is also severe when an ectopic pregnancy occurs.
Increased abundance and pain of blood discharge occurs with endometriosis, the presence of uterine tumors (fibroids and cancer), the appearance of neoplasms in the ovaries, polyps in the endometrium or cervix. Inflammation of the endometrium is also the cause of a change in its structure and increased bleeding during menstruation.
Often with diseases and hormonal disorders, menstruation passes into uterine bleeding, which also appears between them. The danger of too much blood loss is that hemoglobin levels are reduced due to iron loss.Sometimes urgent medical attention is required to stop bleeding, even the complete removal of the endometrium (curettage of the uterus).
Signs of anemia are nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, headache, fainting, and a drop in blood pressure.
If there is too much bleeding, leading to a deterioration in overall health and disability, it is necessary, first of all, to consult a doctor and find out the cause of such an anomaly. An examination is carried out using ultrasound, hysteroscopy to study the condition of the endometrium, the detection of diseases of the uterus and ovaries. A blood test allows you to identify hormonal disorders, the presence of inflammatory processes.
In accordance with the results of the examination, treatment is prescribed, general recommendations are given on how to reduce the abundance of menstrual bleeding. In case of hormonal imbalances, oral contraceptives (Mersilon, Rigevidone) or progesterone preparations (Duphaston, Utrozhestan), drugs that suppress the production of estrogen in the ovaries (rotten) are prescribed. To regulate the hormonal background, homeopathic remedies are used (mastodinon, remens).
Used hemostatic medications that regulate blood coagulation and strengthen the walls of blood vessels, such as etamzilat, dicinone, vikasol (a synthetic analogue of vitamin K - a natural coagulant). To strengthen blood vessels, it is necessary to take vitamin preparations containing vitamins C, K and group B.
Drugs that enhance uterine contractions (oxytocin, pituitrin) are used. They help make your periods shorter. To increase the level of hemoglobin, iron preparations (maltofer) are prescribed.
Warning: All these funds are used only as directed by a doctor. Non-compliance with the dose leads to vascular thrombosis. Instead, you can take decoctions of nettle, shepherd's purse, water pepper (1 tbsp. L. Herb infused in 1 cup boiling water). They are consumed 3 times a day, 50 ml each.
With severe bleeding during menstruation, it is recommended to abandon the use of strong tea and coffee, staying in the hot rays of the sun. To ease bleeding and pain, a cold heating pad is applied briefly to the lower abdomen.
Causes of severe bleeding during menstruation
The amount of blood released may vary for each woman. If menstruation occurs regularly, and the amount of discharge in each new cycle does not differ much, we can assume that too meager or abundant periods are an individual feature of the body. If copious discharge occurs suddenly, you should consult a doctor.
Possible causes of severe bleeding:
- Hormonal disorders. If estrogen levels increase spasmodically, the cells of the endometrium (the tissue that strengthens the inner walls of the uterus) also actively divide, increasing their numbers. This leads to their exfoliation, blood clots appear. Changes in the hormonal background can occur during the onset of menopause, after severe stress.
- Endometriosis In some women of childbearing age, the endometrium begins to grow pathologically. Sometimes its cells are found in other tissues and organs of the body, grow into the muscle layer of the uterus. This leads not only to heavy bleeding, but can also cause complications - infertility, the development of fibroids, pain during bowel movements.
- Myomatosis Sometimes the cells of the uterine muscle tissue begin to grow and multiply, forming a nodule or densification called myoma. This formation is considered a benign tumor and can be successfully treated. Patients with a similar diagnosis may complain of heavy and prolonged menstruation, pain during menstruation. Some types of fibroids can cause infertility or contribute to miscarriages.
- Chronic inflammation of the ovaries and fallopian tubes are common causes of bleeding. Similar diseases can be caused by bacteria (staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli and tuberculosis bacilli). As a rule, the inflammatory process leads to the formation of adhesions - folds of the fallopian tubes grow together. This can cause cavities in which pus or blood accumulates.
- Operations on the uterus or other reproductive organs.
Types of bleeding during menstruation
When examining the patient, the gynecologist finds out how the menstruation goes. Most often, the doctor asks if the discharge is plentiful or scanty, if they have an unpleasant smell, how many days the period of menstruation lasts. Based on the examination and the answers of the woman, the gynecologist concludes whether there are pathologies. You should find out when you can talk about the norm, and when menstruation is considered pathological.
Normally, the menstrual cycle should be the same in time - take from 21 to 34 days. In rare cases, it may be slightly shorter or longer. A cycle is the number of days from the start of menstruation to the date preceding the onset of the following critical days. Signs of normal discharge:
- color - from blurry pink, deep red to burgundy,
- consistency - liquid on the first day, creamy in the middle of the period of menstruation, sometimes - heterogeneous with clots,
- volume - from 20 to 60 ml per day,
- Duration - from 3 to 6 days,
- intensity - at first the discharge is scarce, then they become more abundant and soon begin to decrease,
- the smell is raw meat with a slight musky hue.
Usually, pathology refers to significant deviations from the norm. Pathological bleeding has the following differences:
- the color of the discharge is bright scarlet, opaque,
- consistency - liquid, without clots,
- volume - from 70 ml per day or more,
- intensity - constant or increasing, blood flows continuously,
- smell - absent or unpleasant, putrid.
Sometimes there is a thirst, the pulse quickens, blood pressure can drop significantly. These symptoms are a reason for immediate medical attention.
How to distinguish abundant discharge during menstruation from uterine bleeding?
A distinctive feature of the pathological condition is atypically abundant discharge. If previously menstruation was uneventful, but at the moment they are too intense - it is worth being wary. If during the day the volume of discharge does not decrease and is about 100 ml, you should consult a doctor. Other features are taken into account:
- worsening of health, the occurrence of weakness, dizziness, severe pain in the lower abdomen,
- constant or increasing intensity of secretions,
- pads or tampons have to be changed more often than once per hour.
How to reduce bleeding during menstruation?
In pathological conditions associated with severe blood loss, specialist intervention is necessary. If the monthly periods are plentiful, last more than 6 days, but do not have the signs of pathology listed above, they can be brought back to normal using available means. There are conservative methods that will help stop the discharge (medications, folk recipes), and radical (surgical intervention). In addition, within the framework of complex therapy, compliance with certain rules is shown.
The table shows the main drugs to stop bleeding, as well as funds that help restore blood volume.
|Name of the drug, release form||Active substance||Contraindications|
|Dicinon (Ethamsylate), tablets||Ethamsylate is a hemostatic agent that affects the first stage of the hemostatic mechanism. Increases platelet adhesion and strengthens the walls of blood vessels.||Hypersensitivity to etamsylate, asthma, porphyria, increased blood coagulability, hemoblastosis, thrombosis|
|Vikasol ampoules||Menadione sodium bisulfite. It is a synthetic analogue of vitamin K, normalizes the blood coagulation process.||Thromboembolism, increased blood coagulation|
|Tranexam, tablets / injection||Tranexamic acid. Suppresses (inhibits) the production of fibrinolysin. It has a systemic and local hemostatic effect.||Hypersensitivity to the drug, thrombosis, renal failure, subarachnoid hemorrhage|
|Ascorutin tablets||As a part of ascorbic acid and rutin. It has a capillary stabilizing effect.||Hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, increased blood coagulation, severe kidney disease|
Features of nutrition and adherence to the daily routine
Any bleeding may increase if the body experiences increased physical activity. In this regard, during heavy periods, it is recommended to observe the following rules:
- do not jump abruptly from bed after sleep,
- do not lift weights
- avoid stressful situations
- limit physical activity as much as possible,
- spend more time in a relaxed atmosphere.
Nutrition should be complete, while it is desirable to limit the use of heavy and fatty foods. With a significant loss of blood, you need to ensure that iron-containing foods (beef, liver), fresh herbs, vegetables, fruits, red berries are present in the diet. Pomegranate juice, dry red wine (in the absence of contraindications) will serve as an excellent addition to the diet.
With the help of folk remedies, you can not only reduce bleeding, but also reduce the likelihood of problems in the future. Traditional healers use herbal supplements to treat uterine bleeding. Most popular remedies:
- Nettle. Due to its antihemorrhagic properties, this plant has long been actively used to stop bleeding. Fresh nettle juice works more effectively, since it contains more vitamin K. In case of uterine bleeding, it is necessary to drink a decoction of dried leaves 2-3 times a day, ½ cup.
- Highlander pepper (or water pepper). Plant extract can be purchased at the pharmacy, or you can cook it yourself. To do this, pour 15 g of dry grass into 200 g of vodka and let it brew in a dark place for 14 days. Take 10 drops 3 times a day.
- Shepherd's bag. Prepare a decoction of the plant according to the classic recipe (2 tbsp of herbs pour 1 tbsp of boiling water and insist on a water bath for 40 minutes). Strain and drink 1 tbsp. thrice a day.
- Herbal harvest. 2 tbsp collection (oak bark and St. John's wort in equal proportions) pour a glass of water at room temperature and heat over low heat, not bringing to a boil, for 10-15 minutes. Then let it brew for about an hour, strain. Drink half a glass 2 times a day.
When is surgery required?
Surgery is also indicated in cases where bleeding is caused by tumor formations, papillomatosis, endometrial hyperplasia. The procedure is performed on a gynecological chair using local or general anesthesia.
Curettage of the inner walls of the uterus allows you to get rid of dead cells of the endometrium. Only the upper layer, which is called functional, is removed, since it is he who is rejected during menstruation. After cleaning, blood secretions cease, and the functional layer of the endometrium is restored.
If bleeding with menstruation opens suddenly, ice is recommended as a first aid. To do this, you need to fill the frozen cubes of water in a dense plastic bag, then wrap it in a towel. Lay the bundle on the lower abdomen, remain in a calm position for 20-30 minutes. After removing the ice, lie on your stomach - in this position, the uterus contracts more intensively. Also, bleeding can be stopped by taking a slice of lemon in your mouth.
What is the danger of severe blood loss during menstruation?
During menstruation, the body is freed from unnecessary endometrial cells, cleansed. If menstruation turns into heavy bleeding, this can cause complications. Loss of blood threatens to worsen health, dizziness. If the bleeding is not stopped on time, the blood formula will change, signs of anemia will appear. This condition can cause irreversible changes in the body and lead to death.
Prevention of Rebleeding
If heavy menstruation occurs frequently, there have been cases of uterine bleeding, attention should be paid to prevention. Effective and proven ways to prevent bleeding:
- take water pepper extract,
- limit physical activity during menstruation,
- regularly visit the gynecologist (once every six months),
- during menstruation, avoid the use of foods that promote blood thinning (peppermint, beets, olive oil),
- refuse Aspirin and medicines that contain acetylsalicylic acid (Citramon).